Squamata Verlag
The 'Cordyliformes Bibliography' is an ever-growing website that catalogs references of anything related to the biology of the two lizard families Cordylidae and Gerrhosauridae (Reptilia: Sauria: Squamata). Currently it contains over 1.400 items, ranging in focus from palaeontology, ecology and general biology through captive breeding. Due to the size of this bibliography, it has been split into several parts, ordered by author´s last name. The references have been entered from the “BIBLIOTHECA CORDYLIFORMIUM”, and manually. The bibliography is based on a review of original papers and does not include theses, dissertations and 'gray literature'. Virtually every citation has been checked to ensure accurate and comprehensive coverage of the literature of the Cordyliformes – however, always double check references! If you utilize this bibliography for your research and find that it was a useful resource, please acknowledge it in your publications.   Please e-mail new references to me!

To browse the author's sites - please use the alphabetic characters above.

BIOLOGY OF THE REPTILIA and the Cordyliformes  |  see the Cordyliformes Library (CordyLibrary)


Most recent additions:

  • Bates, Michael F. (2014): Tetradactylus africanus, Geographical Distributions. - African Herp News, 61: 34-35. [#10.046]
  • Bauer, Aaron M. & Christofer J. Bell (2014): Arnout Vosmaer and the Herpetological Parts of the Regnum animale. - Bibliotheca Herpetologica, 11: 5-41. [#10.050. Details about No.1278 VOSMAER (1774) of my Bibliotheca Cordyliformium. Lacerta anguina]
  • Ceriaco, Luis M. P., A. M. Bauer, D. C. Blackburn & A. C. F. C. Lavres (2014): The Herpetofauna of the Capanda Dam Region, Malanje, Angola. - Herpetological Review, 45 (4): 667-674. [#10.051; Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus.]
  • Cernansky, Andrej (2012): The oldest known European Neogene girdled lizard fauna (Squamata, Cordylidae), with comments on Early Miocene immigration of African taxa. - Geodiversitas, 34 (4): 837-848. [10.049. Maybe refer to Palaeocordylus bohemicus]
  • Clusella-Trullas, S. & A. Botes (2008): Faecal analysis suggests generalist diet in three species of Western Cape cordylids. - African Zoology, 43 (1): 125-130. [#10.048. Cordylus niger, C. cordylus and C. oelofseni]
  • Goldberg, S. R., C. R. Bursey, E. Greenbaum, C. Kusamba & J. Arreola (2014): Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus, Endoparasites, Natural History Notes. - African Herp News, 61: 20-21. [#10.042]
  • Whiting, Martin J., William R. Branch, Mitzy Pepper & J. Scott Keogh (2015): A new species of spectacularly coloured flat lizard Platysaurus (Squamata: Cordylidae: Platysaurinae) from southern Africa. - Zootaxa 3986 (2): 173-192. [#10.058. Abstract: "We describe a new species of flat lizard (Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov.) from the Richtersveld of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and the Fish River Canyon region of southern Namibia. This species was formerly confused with P. capensis from the Kamiesberg region of Namaqualand, South Africa. Genetic analysis based on one mtDNA and two nDNA loci found Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov. to be genetically divergent from P. capensis and these species can also be differentiated by a number of scalation characters, coloration and their allopatric distributions. To stabilize the tax-onomy the type locality of Platysaurus capensis A. Smith 1844 is restricted to the Kamiesberg region, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa."]
  • Wiens, J. J. et al. (2012): Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. - Biology Letters (2012) 8: 1043-1046. [#10.040. Cordylidae and Gerrhosauridae]


  • Bates, Michael F., Krystal A. Tolley, Shelley Edwards, Zoe Davids, Jessica M. Da Silva, William R. Branch (2013): A molecular phylogeny of the African plated lizards, genus Gerrhosaurus Wiegmann, 1828 (Squamata: Gerrhosauridae), with the description of two new genera. – Zootaxa, 3750 (5): 465-493. [#9995. Abstract: "We constructed a molecular phylogeny of the African plated lizard family Gerrhosauridae using two mitochondrial markers (ND2, 732 bp; 16S, 576 bp) and one nuclear marker (PRLR, 538 bp). This analysis showed that the subfamily Gerrhosaurinae consists of five major clades which we interpret as representing five genera. The genera Tetradactylus and Cordylosaurus were each recovered as monophyletic, but Gerrhosaurus as currently conceived is paraphyletic, consisting of three distinct genus-level assemblages. The two clades consisting of Gerrhosaurus major Duméril, 1851 and Gerrhosaurus validus Smith, 1849 are both described here as new genera, namely Broadleysaurus Bates & Tolley gen. nov. and Matobosaurus Bates & Tolley gen. nov., respectively. Two subspecies of ‘Gerrhosaurus major’ that were historically separated on the basis of differences in colour pattern are not reciprocally monophyletic, so Gerrhosaurus bottegoi Del Prato, 1895 is relegated to the synonomy of Broadleysaurus major (Duméril, 1851) comb. nov., which is rendered monotypic. Gerrhosaurus validus maltzahni De Grys, 1938 is genetically and morphologically well differentiated from G. v. validus and the two taxa also occur in allopatry. We therefore re-instate the former as Matobosaurus maltzahni (De Grys, 1938) comb. nov., rendering Matobosaurus validus (Smith, 1849) comb. nov. a monotypic species. Our analysis also showed that Gerrhosaurus sensu stricto comprises two major subclades, one consisting of Gerrhosaurus typicus (Smith, 1837) + Gerrhosaurus skoogi Andersson, 1916, and the other containing the remaining species. In this latter subclade we show that west-Central African Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus Hallowell, 1857 is most closely related to Gerrhosaurus auritus Boettger, 1887 rather than to G. nigrolineatus from East and Southern Africa. The west-Central African clade of G. nigrolineatus differs from the East and Southern African clade by a p-distance of 13.0% (ND2) and 6.9% (16S), and can be differentiated morphologically. We accordingly apply the name Gerrhosaurus intermedius Lönnberg, 1907 comb. nov. to populations from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa previously identified under the name G. nigrolineatus. Our analysis also confirms that Gerrhosaurus bulsi Laurent, 1954 is a distinct species and sister taxon to a clade containing G. nigrolineatus, G. auritus and G. intermedius. The latter four taxa form a closely-related ‘G. nigrolineatus species complex’ with a widespread distribution in Africa. Most closely related to this complex of species is Gerrhosaurus flavigularis Wiegmann, 1828 which has an extensive range in East and Southern Africa, and displays genetic substructure which requires further investigation. The status of Gerrhosaurus multilineatus Bocage, 1866, and Angolan populations referred to G. nigrolineatus, remains problematic."]
  • Stanley, Edward L., Aaron M. Bauer, Todd R. Jackman, William R. Branch & P. Le Fras N. Mouton (2011): Between a rock and a hard polytomy: Rapid radiation in the rupicolous girdled lizards (Squamata: Cordylidae). – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58 (2011): 53-70. [#9320. – Abstract: "Girdled lizards (Cordylidae) are sub-Saharan Africa’s only endemic squamate family and contain 80 nominal taxa, traditionally divided into four genera: Cordylus, Pseudocordylus, Chamaesaura and Platysaurus. Previous phylogenetic analysis revealed Chamaesaura and Pseudocordylus to be nested within Cordylus, and the former genera were sunk into the later. This taxonomic revision has received limited support due to the study’s poor taxon sampling, weakly supported results and possible temporary nomenclatural instability. Our study analyzes three nuclear and three mitochondrial genes from 111 specimens, representing 51 ingroup taxa. Parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian analyses of concatenated and partitioned datasets consistently recovered a comb-like tree with 10, well-supported, monophyletic lineages. Our taxonomic reassessment divides the family into 10 genera, corresponding to these well-supported lineages. Short internodes and low support between the non-platysaur lineages are consistent with a rapid radiation event at the base of the viviparous cordylids." – Online: click here. – Parts of the new Cordylidae systematic are included in the Cordyliformes Archive (genera Platysaurus, Cordylus, Pseudocordylus, and Chamaesaura)]

                              from Stanley et al. 2011
                                             fig. 4 from Stanley et al. 2011, p. 67


  • References added to “Bibliotheca Cordyliformium” are red.
  • The references are ordered by author´s name (surname).
  • Particles such as “de”, “la”, “van”, “von” here are treated as part of the first name (eg. J. H. van Wyk see Wyk, J. H. van).
  • A signature like [1234] or [#] indicates that the paper or book is in my personal library; items with italic signature [4321] has not been seen.
  • In the printed “Bibliotheca Cordyliformium” you will find to most of the citations an additional annotation as to the taxa discussed and the topics covered. These annotations are not part of this online bibliography.
  • Most of the references are in my personal library. Ask for further information on particular items!


  • 29th July 2015: 8 new papers and books are added.
  • 23rd December 2014: 7 new books and papers are added.
  • 20th July 2014: 9 new papers and books are added.
  • 25th December 2013: Eight new papers are added.
  • 25th December 2012: Eight new papers are added.
  • 7th June 2012: Five new papers are added.
  • 4th March 2012: Five new papers are added.
  • 27th December 2011: Eight new papers are added.
  • 30th October 2011: 23 new items are added.
  • 24th April 2011: one new reference
  • 15th March 2011: Seven new papers are added.
  • 31 October 2010: Four new papers and a book are added
  • 28th July 2010: Four new references added.
  • 9th May 2010: Three new papers added.
  • 20th March 2010: Three new papers added.
  • 14th February 2010: Four new references added.
  • 27th December 2009: Three new papers added.
  • 4th October 2009: Six new references added.
  • 6th June 2009: Five new titels added.
  • 24th January 2009: three new papers added.
  • 14th September 2008: Four new papers are added.
  • 26th July 2008: Two new references (a book and a paper) are added.
  • 29th June 2008: Four new papers are added.
  • 13th April 2008: Ten new papers and books are added.
  • 27th January 2008: Six new titels.
  • 22nd December 2007: Three new titels.
  • 25th November 2007: Seven new titels and 20 very old books from google.books are added.
  • 28th October 2007: Three new titels.
  • 22nd September 2007: Four new titels are added.
  • 19th August 2007: One new reference: Lacepède 1802.
  • 29th July 2007: Nine new references are added.
  • 7th April 2007: Ten new references are added.
  • 1st & 7th January 2007: Six new references, Loehr (2006), Metzger & Herrel (2006), Petzold & Engelmann (2006), Raselimanana et al. (2006), Shine et al. (2006), and Yoder et al. (2005) are added.
  • December 2006: The new bibliography “Bibliotheca Cordyliformium” is published.
  • 23rd May 2006: Three new titels: Krause et al. (2003), Nieuwoudt et al. (2003[c]) and Toit et al. (2003).
  • 29th April 2006: Six new titels: Böhme, M. (2002 and 2003), Brandley et al. (2005), Schmidt (2002), Schmidt et al. (2005) and Schmitz et al. (2005).
  • 8th April 2006: Two new titels: Shine et al. (2006) and Vences (2004).
  • 26th February 2006: Three new references: O’Connor et al. (2006), Cooper (2005) and Drewes (2005).
  • 22nd January 2006: Nine new references are added: Branch et al. (2005a + 2005b), Brogard (2005), Cooper (2005), D’Cruze & Sabel (2005), Fry et al. (2005), Schmidt (2004), Vidal and Hedges (2004 + 2005) and a new reprint from Laurenti (1768).
  • 16th October 2005: Three new references: Branch 2005, Jacobsen 2005 and du Toit et al. 2005 are added.
  • 19th August 2005: Four new refereces: Affre et al. 2005, Branch & Bauer 2005, Mouton et al. 2005 and Visagie et al. 2005 are added.
  • 16th April 2005: Two new refereces: Barts et al. (2005) and Ziegler (2005) are added.
  • 12th February 2005: Two new references: Lacépède (1788-1790) and Langerwerf (2005).
  • 22nd January 2005: Three new titels: Loehr (2004), Salvidio et al. (2004)and Villiers & Villiers (2004).
  • 26th December 2004: Nine new references: Bory De Saint-Vincent (1843), Daniels et al. (2004), Daszak & Ball (2001), Hering-Hagenbeck et al. (2002), Kamp (1836), Lee (2000), Losos et al. (2002), Scott et al. (2004) and Wardt et al. (1999). New in my library: Popp (1931), Scherer (1902), Senfft (1931) and Tornier (1902).
  • 24th October 2004: Three new titels: Berghof, Glaw and Glos (all 2004).
  • 1 August 2004: Three new titels: Broadley & Cotterill (2004), McConnachie & Alexander (2004) and Schmidt (2004).
  • 1 May 2004: Nine new items: Cooper (2002), Cooper & Vitt (2002), Griffin (2000 a + b), Harris et al. (2001),  Iordansky (1996), Reynoso & Callison (2000), Toit et al. (2002) and Whiting (2002).
  • 16 April 2004: Three new references: McConnachie, S. & M. J. Whiting (2003), Whiting, M. J. (2000) and Whiting, M. J.; S. P. Lailvaux; L. T. Reaney & M. Wymann (2003).
  • 8 February 2004: Three new references: Lailvaux et al., Whiting & Cooper and Wymann & Whiting (all 2003)
  • 28 December 2003: One new reference: Cunningham at al. (2003).
  • 7 December 2003: New references: Cooper & Whiting (2003), Grathwohl (2000), Hart (1976), Matz (1975[b]), Odierna et al. (2002) and Pianka & Vitt (2003).
  • 18 October 2003: Three new references: Andreone et al. (2003), Lamb et al. (2003) and Nieuwoudt et al. (2003b).
  • 3 October 2003: Two new references: Clauss & Clauss (2002) and Nieuwoudt et al. (2003).
  • 10 August 2003: Three new references: Anonymus (2002), Baard & de Villiers (2000) and Griffin (2003).
  • 26 April 2003: Three new references: Flemming & Mouton (2002), Harbig (2003) and Whiting et al. (2003).
  • 1 January 2003: Three new references: Mouton et al. (2002), Pietersen & Pietersen (2002) and Wyk & Swarts (2002).
  • 27 October 2002: Five new references: Hofstra (1999), Langerwerf (2001), Loehr (1997a and b) and McKeown (2001).
  • 4 September 2002: Four new references: Broadley & Branch (2002), Hulbert & Barts (2002), Klerks et al. (2002) and Visagie et al. (2002) - and a week later: Phelps, T. (2002). New in library: Gray (1838).
  • 20 May 2002: Five new references: Andreone et al. (2001), Gettmann (1995), Girard (2002), Schmidt (2002) and Struijk (2002); new in my library: Jes (1967).
  • 23 March 2002: Four new references: Bauer & Lamb (2001), Moon (2001), Morescalchi et al. (1997), and Zimmermann (2001).
  • 16 February 2002: One new reference: Seba (1734-1765); new in my library: Andersson (1910) and Sternfeld (1912).
  • 27 December 2001: Five new references: Dijk et al. (1998), Dzialowski & O’Connor (2001), Müller, J. (2001), Schmidt, A. (1998) and Spawls et al. (2001).
  • 5 November 2001: New references: Alexander, van Der Heever & Lanzenby (2001), Cooper (1995), Cooper, van Wyk & Mouton (1999), Fogel (2000), Frost, Janies, Mouton & Titus (2001), Muchlinski, Gramajo & Garcia (1999) and Putti & Della Rossa (1996); new in my library: Sclater (1898) and Sternfeld (1911b).
  • 12 September 2001: Seven new references: Cooper & Habegger (2001), Lee & Doughty (1997), Raxworthy & Nussbaum (1996), Schmitz et al. (2001), Smith & Ballinger (2001), Vonesch (2001) and Whiting & Alexander (2001).
  • 28 July 2001: Three new references: Raselimanana, Raxworthy & Nussbaum (2000), Shaw & Nodder (eds.) (1810-1811) and Zug, Vitt & Caldwell (2001).
  • 4 June 2001: Three new references: Cope (1896), Gruschwitz & Schmidt (2001) and Heying (2001).
  • 22 April 2001: New references: Girard (1998), Haagner et al. (2000), Kober (1999), Mouton et al. (2000), Spawls & Rotich (1997) and van Wyk (2000); new in my library: Conant & Hudson (1949) and Mouton et al. (2000).
  • 14 March 2001: Two new references: Köhler, Glaw & Vences and Mouton, Fourie & Flemming
  • 27 January 2001: Five new references (Bowker 1984, Broadley & Mouton 2000, Cooper 2000, Korner et al. 2000, and Mouton et al. 1998) are added; seven items are new in my library (Bacon 1975, Brain 1960, Hewitt 1927b, Prato 1895, Schwenk 1995, Scortecci 1930b, and Skinner 1991).
  • 10 December 2000: One new reference: Verband Deutscher Vereine für Aquarienkunde...
  • 26 November 2000: One new reference: Langerwerf, B.
  • 31 October 2000: Two new references: Bauer, A. M. and Mouton, P. le Fras N. et al.
  • 24 September 2000: Two new references: Cooper, W. et al. and Greeff, J. M. & M. J. Whiting.
  • 27 August 2000: New references: Wardt et al.; contents to Gray (1845); book review of Schmidt (1919). 
  • 1 August 2000: All references which are in my personal library are now indicated with a rhombus [#].
  • 6 July 2000: This site was created from the old `Cordyliformes News´.