Merrem, B. (1820): Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien. Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum. — Marburg: Johann Christian Krieger, i–xv + 1–191. [type species: Tetradactylus chalcidicus Merrem, 1820 (= Tetradactylus tetradactylus (Daudin, 1802)) by monotypy]

Distribution: south and east coastal zone and north Transvaal (Rep. South Africa), central Zimbabwe, central Zambia, south-east Zaire, east Angola, south Mozambique. [Lang 1991: map]


Tetradactylus africanus africanus (Gray, 1838)
1838 Caitia africana Gray
1988 Tetradactylus africanus africanus – Branch

Gray, J. (1838): Catalogue of the slender-tongued Saurians, with Descriptions of many new Genera and Species. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), 1: 274–283 + 388–394. [as Caitia africana; type locality: “Cape of Good Hope”; type data: ?]

sc_159Fitzsimons, 1943  Smith, 1838-1849
Click to enlarge


Bates 2014: geographical distribution Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Berger-Dell’mour 1983: anatomy •  Berger-Dell’mour 1985: anatomy •  Boulenger 1887[a]: morph •  Branch 1990[a]: distr, sys  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Essex 1927: degeneration of limbs •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr  • Gray 1845: morph •  Hughes 1988: age: >1 year  • Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (=all data) •  Mason & Alexander 1992: reproduction  • Mason & Alexander 1996: oviposition  • Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Smith 1838-1849 [= 1849]: morph •  de Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Tetradactylus africanus fitzsimonsi Hewitt, 1915
1915 Tetradactylus fitzsimonsi Hewitt
1988 Tetradactylus africanus fitzsimonsi – Branch

Hewitt, J. (1915): Descriptions of two new South African lizards, Tetradactylus laevicauda and T. fitzsimonsi. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 5 (2): 101–103. [as Tetradactylus fitzsimonsi; type locality: “Schoemachers Kop near Port Elizabeth”; type in (?) TM]

Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014:
tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, (Co-types in Port Elizabeth Museum and Albany Museum, Grahamstown) •  Hewitt 1937[b]: morph, distr  • Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (=all data)  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Tetradactylus breyeri  Roux, 1907
Roux, J. (1907): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fauna von Süd-Afrika. Ergebnisse einer Reise von Prof. Max Weber im Jahre 1894. VII. Lacertilia (Eidechsen). — Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere (Jena), 25: 403–444. [see below]  [type locality: “Transvaal”; type in Zoological Museum, Amsterdam]

Roux, 1907  Fitzsimons, 1943
Click to enlarge


Bates 1993[a]:
reproduction  • Bates 1993[d]: morph •  Bates 1996: sys, distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bourquin & Channing 1980: distr, habitat  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Daan & Hillenius 1966: holotype in Zoological Museum, Amsterdam  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr  • Jacobsen 1988: summary of data, conservation status: “rare”, map •  Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (=all data)  • Rogner 1994: morph •  Visser 1984[b]: morph, behav, distr •  de Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph, habitat, breeding, diet •  not in Wermuth 1968 [in error]  •


Tetradactylus eastwoodae Hewitt & Methuen, 1913
--> extinct
Hewitt, J. & Methuen, P. (1913): Descriptions of some New Batrachia and Lacertilia from South Africa. — Transaction of the Royal Society of South Africa (Cape Town), 3: 107–111. [sometimes cited as “Methuen & Hewitt”] [type locality: “Woodbush (Zoutpansberg District)”; type in TM]

Fitzsimons, 1943


Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, distr, map •  Jacobsen 1988[a]: summary of data, conservation status: “extinct?”, map  • Fitzsimons 1943: morph, colour, size •  Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (= all data) •  McLachlan 1978: conservation status •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Tetradactylus ellenbergeri (Angel, 1922)
1922 Paratetradactylus ellenbergeri Angel
1933 Tetradactylus boulengeri de Witte
1937 Tetradactylus lundensis Monard
1942 Tetradactylus fitzsimonsi boulengeri – Loveridge
1950 Tedradactylus [sic!] fitzsimonsi simplex Laurent
1964 Tetradactylus ellenbergeri boulengeri – Laurent
1971 Tetradactylus ellenbergeri – Broadley

Angel, M. (1922): Sur un Lézard d’un genre nouveau de la famille de Gerrhosauridae. — Bulletin de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 28: 150–152. [as Paratetradactylus ellenbergeri; type locality: “Pays des Barotsés (Rhodésie)”; type in MHNP]

Angel, 1922   Tetradactylus ellenbergeri


Branch 2005: morph, distr, photo  • Broadley, 1962[b]: sys •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Broadley 1971[c]: distr, habitat  • Broadley & Cotterill 2004: distr •  Brygoo 1985[a]: sys, type of Paratetradactylus ellenbergeri in MHNP •  Haagner, Branch & Haagner 2000: size, diet, reproduction •  Laurent 1950: description of Tedradactylus [sic!] fitzsimonsi simplex (type locality: “Station d’études des Kundelungu (1.750 m.) (Savane boisée)”, type in [?] Brussels)  • Laurent 1964: morph, sys, distr, behav •  Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (= all data) •  Monard 1937: description of Tetradactylus lundensis (type locality: “Lunda, sur les bords du Tyiumbwé supérieur, Angola”, paratype in R. G. Musée du Congo, fide de Witte & Laurent 1942)  • Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2001: morph, distr, map, habitat, biology  •  Wagner et al. 2012: morphology, behaviour, habitat, distribution •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • de Witte 1933[a]: description of Tetradactylus boulengeri (type locality: “Kansénia (Vallée de la Pande), Katanga”, type in R. G. Musée du Congo)  • de Witte & Laurent 1942: morph, distr  •


Tetradactylus seps (Linnaeus, 1758)
1758 Lacerta seps Linnaeus
1801 Sincus [sic!] sepiformis Schneider
1839 Gerrhosaurus sepiformis – Duméril & Bibron
1915 Tetradactylus laevicauda Hewitt
1942 Tetradactylus seps laevicauda – Loveridge
1990 Tetradactylus seps – Branch

Linnaeus, C. (1758): Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, reformata. — Holmiae: Laurenti Salvii [10. Edition], 824 pp. [see below] [as Lacerta seps; type locality: “in meridionalibus”; type in (?) Stockholm Museum]

Linnaeus, 1758  Bell, 1843  Fitzsimons, 1943 
 Hewitt, 1937  Smith, 1838-1849
Click to enlarge


Bates 1996: morph, distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bauer, Lang & Günther 1994: sys, type of Sincus sepiformis Schneider in [?] ZMB  • Bell 1843: morph, sys •  Berger-Dell’mour 1983: anatomy •  Berger-Dell’mour 1985: anatomy •  Boulenger 1887[a]: morph •  Bourquin & Channing 1980: distr, habitat  • Branch 1990[a]: distr, sys, behav, map  • Branch 1991[b]: behav, distr  • Branch & Bauer 1995: behav •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Fitzsimons 1947: morph, colour •  Haagner & Branch 1992: distr •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Hewitt 1915: description of Tetradactylus laevicauda (type locality: “Tabamhlope, Natal”, type in TM)  • Hewitt 1937[b]: morph, distr •  Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (=all data)  • Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype  • Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Schneider 1801: description of Sincus [sic] sepiformis, no type locality (type: see Bauer, Lang & Günther, in ZMB with ''?'')  • Shaw 1802: morph •  Smith 1838-1849 [= 1844]: morph = plate 41 fig. 1 •  Visser 1984[b]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Tetradactylus tetradactylus (Daudin, 1802)
1802 Chalcides tetradactylus Daudin
1820 Tetradactylus chalcidicus Merrem
1830 Saurophis tetradactylus – Wagler
1839 Saurophis lacepedii Duméril & Bibron
1926 Tetradactylus bilineatus Hewitt
1942 Tetradactylus tetradactylus bilineatus – Loveridge
1990 Tetradactylus tetradactylus – Branch

Daudin, F. (1802): Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Reptiles. 4. — Paris, 1–397. [as Chalcides tetradactylus; type locality: “on ne sait pas dans quelle partie de la terre il habite”; type data: ???Paris]

sc_160sc_161Fitzsimons, 1943   Fitzsimons, 1943
Click to enlarge


Bates 1988[a]:
distr •  Bates 1993[b]: size  • Bates 1996: morph, distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bates & Douglas 1992: distr  • Berger-Dell’mour 1983: anatomy •  Berger-Dell’mour 1985: anatomy •  Boulenger 1887[a]: morph •  Branch 1990[a]: distr, sys, behav, map  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map  • Branch & Bauer 1995: behav •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Brygoo 1985[a]: sys, syntype of Saurophis lacepedii in MHNP and Chalcides tetradactylus   • Dumeril & Bibron 1839: description of Saurophis lacepedii, type locality: “la pointe australe du continent africain”  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Gray 1845: morph •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Hewitt 1926: description of Tetradactylus bilineatus (type locality: “Burghersdorp district, C.P.”, type in Albany Museum, Grahamstown) •  Hewitt 1937[b]: morph, distr  • Loveridge 1942[a]: revision (=all data)  • Merrem 1820: description of Tetradactylus chalcidicus, no type locality •    Rogner 1994: morph •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Visser 1984[b]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Tetradactylus udzungwensis Salvidio, Menegon, Sindaco & Moyer, 2004
Salvidio, Sebastiano, Michele Menegon, Roberto Sindaco & David Moyer (2004): A new species of elongate seps from Udzungwa grasslands, southern Tanzania (Reptilia, Gerrhosauridae, Tetradactylus Merrem, 1820). —  Amphibia-Reptilia, 25 (1): 19-27. [type locality: “Bomalang’ombe grasslands at 1880 m above sea level (08° 11’ 36.7’’ S, 35° 51’ 52.7’’ E), Gendawaki valley, Kilolo District, Udzungwa Mountains, South East Tanzania”; type in Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento, Italia.]


© Klaus Adolphs  – created: 26 February 2001  – last changed or updated: 29 July 2015