This Cordylus+ site includes also the genera Smaug, Namazonurus, Ouroborus, Ninurta and Karusasaurus.

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1801 Chamaesaura Schneider
1820 Zonurus Merrem 1838 Pseudocordylus A. Smith
1838 Hemicordylus A. Smith
1936 Cordylus – Stejneger
2011 Smaug Stanley et al. (type species: Cordylus giganteus Smith 1844)
2011 Ninurta Stanley et al. (type species: Zonurus coeruleopunctatus Hewitt & Methuen 1913)
2011 Ouroborus Stanley et al. (type species: Cordylus cataphractus Boie 1828)
2011 Karusasaurus Stanley et al. (type species: Cordylus polyzonus Smith 1838)
2011 Namazonurus Stanley et al. (type species: Zonurus pustulatus Peters 1862)
2011 Cordylus – Stanley et al. (type species: Cordylus verus Laurenti 1768 = Cordylus cordylus (Linnaeus, 1758))


Laurenti, J. (1768): Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austriacorum, quod authoritate et consensu. — Viennae: Joan. Thomae, 217 pp. [type species (by tautonomy): Lacerta cordylus Linnaeus, 1758]

Distribution: south-east Kenya, east and south Tanzania, north Zambia, south-east Zaire, central Mozambique, east and south Zimbabwe, east Botswana, Rep. South Africa, central Namibia; south Ethiopia and south-west Angola (relict populations). [ Lang 1991: map]

Reissig 2014: description, maps and fotos to all species, incl. keeping and breeding.

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The new Cordylidae systematic – from Stanley, Bauer, Jackman, Branch & Mouton (2011) –
was included in parts; for more details
see here.
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Cordylus angolensis (Bocage, 1895)
1895 Zonurus angolensis Bocage
1944 Cordylus cordylus angolensis – Loveridge
1971 Cordylus angolensis – Visser

Bocage, J. (1895): Herpétologie d’Angola et du Congo. — Lisbonne: Imprimerie Nationale, i–xx + 1–203 pp. 20 plts. [as Zonurus angolensis; type locality: “Caconda, Angola”; type destroyed in the Museu Bocage fire] — The Bocage book and the description of Zonurus angolensis:

Bocage, 1895, cover  Bocage, 1895  Bocage, 1895
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002):
distr  •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1955[b]: distr •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus aridus Mouton & van Wyk, 1994
Mouton, P. & Wyk, J. (1994): Taxonomic status of geographical isolates in the Cordylus minor complex (Reptilia: Cordylidae): A description of three new species. — Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa (Humewood), 43: 6–18. [type locality: “the farm Botterkraal in the Prince Albert district, Western Cape Province, South Africa, at an altitude of 970m above sea level”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •


Cordylus beraduccii Broadley & Branch, 2002
Broadley, D. G. & W. R. Branch (2002): A review of the small east African Cordylus (Sauria: Cordylidae), with the description of a new species. —  African Journal of Herpetology, 51 (1): 9–34. [type locality: “Ndukusi village (10 km SE of Lolkisale), Kitete District, Arusha Region, Tanzania (03° 50’S: 36° 30’E)”, type in Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, Bulawayo (NMZB)]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 2005: morph, distr, photo  •


Cordylus breyeri (van Dam, 1921) (Smaug breyeri (van Dam, 1921 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1921 Zonurus breyeri van Dam
1943 Cordylus warreni breyeri – Fitzsimons
1998 Cordylus breyeri – Branch
2002 Cordylus breyeri – Anonymus/CITES

Dam, G. van (1921): Descriptions of new species of Zonurus, and notes on the species of Zonurus occurring in the Transvaal. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 7 (4): 239–243. [see below] [as Zonurus breyeri; type locality: “amongst rocks on the farm Geelhoutkop, about 45 miles north of Nylstroom”; type in TM]

van Dam, 1921  van Dam, 1921 Picture-Taker-1YrrGL
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002):
distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav  • Hughes 1988: age: >5 years •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Nietzke 1978: ter, morph  • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex • Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1970: fine structure of the ear • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • 


Cordylus campbelli (Fitzsimons, 1938) (Namazonurus campbelli (Fitzsimons, 1938 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1938 Zonurus campbelli Fitzsimons
1943 Cordylus campbelli – Fitzsimons

Fitzsimons, V. (1938): Transvaal Museum Expedition to South-West Africa and Little Namaqualand, May to August 1937. – Reptiles and Amphibians. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 19 (2): 153–209. [as Zonurus campbelli; type locality: “10-20 miles east of Helmeringshausen, Great Namaqualand”; type in TM]

Fitzsimons, 1943  photo by Johan Marais


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr  • Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Irish 1985: paratype in State Museum, Windhoek •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus cataphractus Boie, 1828 (Ouroborus cataphractus (Boie, 1828 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1831 Zonurus cataphractus – Gray
1838 Cordylus nebulosus Smith

Boie, F. (1828): Über eine noch nicht beschriebene Art von Cordylus Gronov. Cordylus cataphractus Boie. — Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae, (Halle), 14 (1): 139–142. [type locality: “vielleicht ein anderer Theil dieses Continents” [als das südliche Afrika]; type in Museum zu Leyden]

Cordylus cataphractus (c) Mark Klerks  Fitzsimons, 1943  Lawrence, 1937 Picture-Taker-9eDOnE
  Peers, 1930  Smith, 1838-1849 Codex Witsenii
Click to enlarge


Link: Live Birth of an Armadillo Lizard •  Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr (remark: “will soon be removed from Cordylus and be put in a monotypic genus.” •  Aleven 1970: ter •  Baard 1992: conservation •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Berghof 2011: reproduction, sexual maturity, gestation periods, cannibalism, husbandry, feeding •  Biegler 1966: age: >9 years •  Boulenger 1885: morph •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr •  Bustard 1957[a]: defensive attitude  • Costandius, Mouton & Flemming 2006: intergroup distance, group fidelity  • Curtin, Mouton & Chinsamy 2005: bone growth patterns • Dawson & Bishop 1990: fever •  Effenberger & Mouton 2007: multi-male group, spatial partitioning, space overlap, mating system •  Elzen 1982: morph, behav  • Fischer 1884: ter •  Fitzsimons 1935[a]: morph, colour •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Flemming & Mouton 2002: reproduction  • Fogel 1994: photos about birth in ter •  Fogel 2003: 15 years captive observations •  Fogel 2008 & 2009: ter •  Friederich 1978: head shields  • Gray 1845: morph • de Haas 2009: ter, breeding •  Haikal 1971: ter, diet •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hayward & Mouton 2007: group location  • Hughes 1988: age: >9 years •  Jes 1967: ter •  Krabbe-Paulduro & Paulduro 1991[a]: ter •  Laforgia & Varano 1982: chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands •  Lawrence 1937: mites •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  McLachlan 1978: conservation status, breeding •  Mertens 1970: age: 30 years •  Mouton 1988: summary of data, conservation status „vulnerable“, map  • Mouton 2011: aggregation behaviour • Mouton, Fourie & Flemming 2000: oxygen consumption  • Mouton, Flemming & Kanga 1999: grouping and tail-biting behaviour, sexual dimorphism •  Mouton, Geertsema & Visagie 2000: foraging mode •  Mouton, Oelofsen & Mostert 1987: distr, conservation •  Nietzke 1998: ter, morph, distr, behav, diet, reproduction  • Nietzke 1978: ter, morph  •  Nuijten 1989[a]: ter •  Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype •  Ortner 1993: ter •  Patterson & Bannister 1988: morph, behav •  Peers 1930: colour, morph, distr, behav, diet, reproduction  • Popp 1931: ter •  Popp 1949: ter •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Rosenberg 1950: ter, age: ca. 20 years •  Sachs 1935: ter •  Schönfeld 1973: birth, ter  • Senfft 1931: ter •  Smith 1838: description of Cordylus nebulosus (terra typica: “South Africa”)  • Smith 1838-1849 [= 1843]: morph •  Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >8 years •  Switak 1980: behav, ter  • Switak 1987: behav, ter •  Switak 1995[a]: habitat, behav, ter •  Visagie, Mouton & Flemming 2002: group stability, mark-recapture  • Visagie, Mouton & Bauwens 2005: grouping behaviour, refuge availability •  Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wesiak & Vogel 1993: ter, breeding in captivity  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • Wilson et al. 2002: early watercolour from van der Stel, N. Witsen (1686) •  Zwartepoorte & Lierop 1995: ter, habitat  •


Cordylus cloetei Mouton & van Wyk, 1994
Mouton, P. & Wyk, J. (1994): Taxonomic status of geographical isolates in the Cordylus minor complex (Reptilia: Cordylidae): A description of three new species. — Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa (Humewood), 43: 6–18. [type locality: “the farm, De Hoek, in the Nuweveld Mountains, Fraserburg district, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, at an altitude of 1700m above sea level”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Cordylus cloetei
Click to enlarge

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation •   Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •


Cordylus coeruleopunctatus (Hewitt & Methuen, 1913) (Ninurta coeruleopunctatus (Hewitt & Methuen, 1913 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1913 Zonurus coeruleopunctatus Hewitt & Methuen
1943 Cordylus coeruleo-punctatus – Fitzsimons

Hewitt, J. & Methuen, P. (1913): Descriptions of some New Batrachia and Lacertilia from South Africa. — Transaction of the Royal Society of South Africa (Cape Town), 3: 107–111. [sometimes cited as Methuen, P. & J. Hewitt; as Zonurus coeruleopunctatus; type locality: “Buffels Nek, between Knysna and Avontuur, about 10 miles from Knysna”; type in TM]

Cordylus coeruleopunctatus  Fitzsimons, 1943
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1981: distr •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hughes 1988: age: >3 years •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Power 1930: morph •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus cordylus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1758 Lacerta cordylus Linnaeus
1768 Cordylus verus Laurenti
1802 Stellio cordylus – Daudin
1829 Cordylus dorsalis Cuvier
1829 Cordylus griseus Cuvier
1838 Zonurus vertebralis Gray
1845 Zonurus cordylus – Gray
1926 Zonurus cordylus flavus Rose
1943 Cordylus cordylus – Fitzsimons

Linnaeus, C. (1758): Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, reformata. — Holmiae: Laurenti Salvii [10. Edition], 824 pp. [see below] [as Lacerta cordylus; type locality: “in Africa, Asia”; type in Stockholm Museum [?]]

Linne, 1758  Cordylus cordylus  Lithographed plate
  Fitzinger Bilder Atlas  Seba, 1734-1765  Lacepede, 1788-1790  Brehm, 1878
 sc041  Smith, 1838-1849sc_163
Click to enlarge


[above: Seba (1734-1765), Tome I, Plate 84, Fig. 3, 4 • some pages from Lacépède, 1788-1790]  • Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Aleven 1970: ter •  Andersson 1900: on five specimens (with different labels) from the “Königlichen Museum Stockholm” (originally from the “Museum Regis Adolphi Friderici”), incl. size  • Bateman 1897: ter • Bates 2007: first record in Lesotho • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation •  Boulenger 1885: morph (type of Zonurus vertebralis in NHM) •  Branch 1991[b]: behav, distr  • Branch & Bauer 1995: behav •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Brehm 1878: behav •  Broadley 1965[b]: sys •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Brody, Mouton & Grant 1993: sys, electrophoretic analysis •  Brygoo 1985[a]: sys, syntype of Codylus dorsalis and Cordylus griseus in MHNP •  Burrage 1974: behav  • Clusella-Trullas & Botes 2008: faecal analysis, diets • Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior •  Cooper, van Wyk & Mouton 1999: antipredatory defence •  Cooper, Whiting & van Wyk 1997: foraging modes  • Cooper & Steele 1999: foraging and chemosensory behavior  • Cooper & van Wyk 1994: tongue-flicking •  Cooper, van Wyk & Mouton 1995: tongue-flicking •  Cooper, van Wyk & Mouton 1996: pheromonal detection, sex discrimination  • Cooper, van Wyk & Mouton 1999: behav, pheromone, self-recognition, tongue-flicking •  Cordes, Mouton & van Wyk 1995: sexual dimorphism •  Cope 1896: hemipenis •  Cuvier 1829: description of Cordylus dorsalis and Cordylus griseus (type locality: “Africa”) •  Daniels, Mouton & Du Toit 2004: evolutionary relationships, melanism •  Dzialowski & O’Connor 2001: physiological control of warming and cooling  • Fischer 1884: ter •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav  • Flower 1925[a]: age: >3 years •  Gray 1838: description of Zonurus vertebralis (type locality: “Cape of Good Hope”)  • Gray 1845: morph, sys • Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Heerden, Mouton & van Wyk 1992: contact zone with Cordylus niger •  Hewitt 1937[b]: morph, distr, behav •  Hughes 1988: age: >3 years •  Iordansky 1996: temporal ligaments  • Kilchenmann 1975: ter •  Kutschera 1976 & 1977: ter, breeding •  Laforgia & Varano 1982: chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands •  Laurenti 1768: description of Cordylus verus (type locality: “Africa”) •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mouton 1985[b]: sys •  Mouton 1986[b]: distr •  Mouton 1987: phenotypic variations •  Mouton & Oelofsen 1988: patterns of geographic character variation  • Mouton & van Wyk 1989[a]: sys •  Mouton & van Wyk 1990: sys •  Nietzke 1998: ter, morph, distr, ecology, diet, reproduction •  Nietzke 1978: ter, morph  • Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype •  Phelps 2009: fire survival •  Popp 1939: ter •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Rose 1926: description of Zonurus cordylus flavus (type locality: “Cape Peninsula”)  • Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Roux 1907: morph •  Sachs 1935: ter •  Schlegel 1834: morph •  Shaw 1802: morph •  Smith 1838-1849 [= 1843]: morph. plate 28 (1843) figs. 2 + 3: Cordylus griseus = Cordylus cordylus Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >15 years  • Stejneger 1936: sys •  Telford 1995: new trypanosome species from Cordylus cordylus (L.) sensu lato •  Toit, Mouton, Flemming & Niekerk 2005: generation glands in females in correlations with climate •  Versluys 1898: description of the middle and outer ear •  Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph, habitat  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •  Wirminghaus 1990: aggression, behavioural postures, cryptic coloration, social behaviour  • van Wyk & Mouton 1992: epidermal glandular structure • 



Cordylus depressus (Fitzsimons, 1930) (Smaug warreni depressus (Fitzsimons, 1930 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1930 Zonurus barbertonensis depressus Fitzsimons
1933 Zonurus laevigatus Fitzsimons
1943 Cordylus warreni depressus – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus warreni laevigatus – Loveridge
2002 Cordylus depressus – Anonymus/CITES
2006 Cordylus depressus – Broadley

Fitzsimons, V. (1930): Descriptions of new South African Reptilia and Batrachia, with Distribution Records of Allied Species in the Transvaal Museum Collection. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 14 (1): 20–48. [as Zonurus barbertonensis depressus; type locality: “Newgate, near Louis Trichardt, Northern Transvaal”; type in TM]

Cordylus depressus (c) Mark KlerksPicture-Taker-ymyLb4  Fitzsimons, 1943  Fitzsimons, 1943
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bech & Kaden 1990: ter •  Berghof 2006: ter, Pflege und Nachzucht im Terrarium • Berghof 2011: reproduction, sexual maturity, gestation periods, cannibalism, husbandry, feeding • Branch 1998: morph, distr, behav •  Dathe 1988: morph, behav, ter  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Hallmann 1983: ter, breeding • Kirchhof, Krämer, Linden & Richter 2010: distr and habitat •  Krabbe-Paulduro & Paulduro 1986: ter, breeding •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Nuijten 1989[a]: ter •  Pienaar 1978: colour, size, distr, behav  • Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983: colour, distr, behav  • Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >9 years • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex • Switak 1980: behav, ter  • Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • Wöhrmann 1990: goitre formation in a mature Cordylus warreni depressus is described  •


Cordylus giganteus Smith, 1844 (Smaug giganteus (Smith, 1844 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1845 Zonurus derbianus Gray
1885 Zonurus giganteus – Boulenger

Smith, A. (1838–1849) [= 1844]: Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. Consisting chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of natural history collected during an expedition into the interior of South Africa, in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836. Fitted out by ‘The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa’. — London: Smith, Elder and Co. – [see below plate 35 + plate 36] [type locality: „the interior districts of South Africa“; type in NHM]

Smith, 1838-1849  Smith, 1838-1849  Cordylus giganteus, juv. (c) Matz
 Cordylus giganteus Cordylus giganteus, ad.  Cordylus giganteus, unknown plate from 1859
 Cordylus giganteus, in ZFMK Broom, 1913  Gadow, 1901
Click to enlarge

Abraham 1981: morph, behav, ter •  Adolphs & Tröger 1987: sys, distr, behav, ter  • Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Armstrong 2011: status in Kwazulu-Natal Province • Baard 1992: conservation  • Bacon 1975: ter, thermoregulation •  Bateman 1897: ter • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bechtle 1971: ter •  Beddard 1907: anatomy •  Biegler 1966: age: >5 years •  Bissinger & Simon 1979: tongue extrusions •  Boulenger 1885: morph •  Bowler 1977: age: >5 years •  Branch & Patterson 1975: behav •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Broom 1913: birth •  Coborn 1975: feeding • Cobron 1987: morph, distr, habitat, ter •  Conant & Hudson 1949: age: > 5 years  • Donovan 1997: ter •  Fischer 1884: ter •  Fitzsimons 1937: type in NHM •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav  •  Fitzsimons 1965: morph, behav  • Flower 1925[a]: age: >4 years •  Fogel 2000: ter •  Gadow 1901: morph, behav •  Gray 1845: description of Zonurus derbianus (type locality: “S. Africa”, type in NHM) •  Groenewald 1992[a]: resettlement  • Groenewald 1992b: relocation  • Grys [Grijs] 1899: ter •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Honegger 1969: birth •  Hughes 1988: age: >8 years •  Jacobsen, Newbery & Petersen 1990: ecology and conservation status  • Kühner 1935: ter •  Langerwerf 2001: keeping, breeding •  Leutscher 1952: distr, morph, colour, habitat, breeding •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Marais 1984: distr, size, habitat, sexual dimorphism, breeding, diet, behav, ter •  McKeown 2001: burrows  • McLachlan 1978: conservation status, breeding •  Newbery 1997: conservation  • Nietzke 1998: ter, morph, distr, behav  • Nietzke 1978: ter, morph  • Nuijten 1989[a]: ter •  Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype • Parusnath & Nielsen 2011: conservation • Parusnath 2012: predation •  Patterson & Bannister 1988: morph, behav  • Paulduro & Krabbe-Paulduro 1987: ter •  Petersen, Newbery & Jacobsen 1985: behav, resettlement •  Petzold 1974: ter • Pienaar 1962: cytology of blood •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Rohdich 1971: ter •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Rundquist 1981: age: >10 years  • Sachs 1935: ter •  Schmidt 1924: ter, morph of juvenil specimen  • Schönholzer 1959: drinking behav  • Schwier 2007: ter, feeding  • Seidl 1979: ter •  Smet 1981: description of karyotypes  • Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >11 years  • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex • Switak 1980: behav, ter  • Switak 1981[a]: habitat, ter  • Switak 1993: behav, distr, habitat, ter  • Switak 1995[a]: habitat, behav, ter  • Trutnau 1986: morph, habitat, behav •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph, habitat, breeding, diet  • Welzel 1981: ter •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • van Wyk 1988: summary of data, conservation status  “vulnerable”, map •  van Wyk 1991: biennial reproduction  • van Wyk 1994[a]: fat body and liver cycles •  van Wyk 1994[b]: female reproductive cycle •  van Wyk 1995: male reproductive cycle •  van Wyk 2000: diet composition, seasonality  • van Wyk & Mouton 1992: epidermal glandular structure •  van Wyk & Swarts 2002: behav, burrows •


Cordylus imkeae Mouton & van Wyk, 1994
Mouton, P. & van Wyk, J. (1994): Taxonomic status of geographical isolates in the Cordylus minor complex (Reptilia: Cordylidae): A description of three new species. — Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa (Humewood), 43: 6–18. [type locality: “Lower slopes of the Rooiberg Mountain on the farm Wolfhok in the Garies district, Namaqualand, South Africa, at an altitude of 1650m above sea level”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr (as Cordylus imkae [sic]) • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map  • Cooper, Whiting & van Wyk 1997: foraging modes  • Loehr 2010: ecology, ethology, reproduction in captivity •


Cordylus jonesii (Boulenger, 1891)
1891 Zonurus jonesii Boulenger
1930 Zonurus cordylus jonesii – Power
1943 Cordylus jonesii – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus cordylus jonesii – Loveridge
1988 Cordylus tropidosternum jonesii – Branch
2002 Cordylus jonesii – Broadley & Branch

Boulenger, G. (1891): Description of a new Lizard of the Genus Zonurus from the Transvaal. — The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), 7 (6th Series): 417. [as Zonurus jonesii; type locality: “Murchison Range, Transvaal”; type in NHM]

sc_164

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Auerbach 1985: morph, behav  • Auerbach 1986: etymology •  Auerbach 1987: morph, behav, distr •  Barts, Hulbert & Haacke 2005: preferred hiding place in Aloe marlothii Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Böhme 1988: genital morphology  • Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Broadley & Branch 2002: review, sys, morph, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1935[b]: distr, morph, colour  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav  • Fritz 2012: breeding, terrarium (in detail) •  Girard 2002: age >26 years •  Hewitt 1909: morph •  Krabbe-Paulduro & Paulduro 1987: morph, behav, ter, breeding •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data)  • Nuijten 1989[b]: ter • Pienaar 1962: cytology of blood •  Pienaar 1978: colour, size, distr, behav  • Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983: colour, distr, behav •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Roux 1907: morph •  Smet 1981: description of karyotypes •  Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >10 years  • Switak 1980: behav, ter  •  Switak 1995[b]: behav, ter  • Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • Zeylemaker 1983: birth in ter  •


Cordylus jordani (Parker, 1936) (Karusasaurus jordani (Parker, 1936 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1936 Zonurus jordani Parker
1943 Cordylus jordani – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus polyzonus jordani – Loveridge
1988 Cordylus jordani – Branch

Parker, H. (1936): Dr. Karl Jordan’s Expedition to South-West Africa and Angola: Herpetological Collections. — Novitates Zoologicae (London), 40: 115–146. [as Zonurus jordani; type locality: “Hoffnung, near Windhoek”; type in NHM]

Picture-Taker-KsN8CJ


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1938: distr, morph, colour, size  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr •  Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr  • Hughes 1988: age: >3 years •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1955[b]: distr, morph  • Miehle & Bauer 1993: visceral vasculature  • Rogner 1994: morph  • Steyn & Steyn 1962: pineal eye  • Switak 1995[b]: behav, ter  • Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus lawrenci (Fitzsimons, 1939) (Namazonurus lawrenci (Fitzsimons, 1939 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1939 Zonurus lawrenci Fitzsimons
1943 Cordylus lawrenci – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus cordylus lawrenci – Loveridge
1988 Cordylus lawrenci – Branch

Fitzsimons, V. (1939 [a]): Descriptions of some new species and subspecies of lizards from South Africa. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 20 (1): 5–16. [see below] [as Zonurus lawrenci; type locality: “Lekkersing, Richtersveld, Little Namaqualand”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Fitzsimons, 1939


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Mouton 1988: summary of data, conservation status “restricted“, map  • Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  McLachlan 1978: conservation status •  Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus machadoi Laurent, 1964
1964 Cordylus vittifer machadoi Laurent
1998 Cordylus machadoi – Branch

Laurent, R. (1964): Reptiles et Amphibiens de l’Angola (Troisième contribution). — Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Diamang), Serviços Culturais, Museu do Dundo (Angola), No. 67, 165 pp. [see below] [as Cordylus vittifer machadoi; type locality: “Leba, Humpata, environs de Sá da Bandeira, Alt. 1800 m, Huila”; type in [?]Museu do Dundo)

Laurent, 1964  Cordylus machadoi   Cordylus machadoi  
 
Cordylus machadoi   Cordylus machadoi
Click to enlarge

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus macropholis (Boulenger, 1910)
1910 Zonurus macropholis Boulenger
1943 Cordylus macropholis – Fitzsimons

Boulenger, G. (1910): A Revised List of the South African Reptiles and Batrachians, with Synoptic Tables, special Reference to the Specimens in the South African Museum, and Descriptions of new Species. — Annals of the South African Museum (Cape Town), 5: 455–538. [as Zonurus macropholis; type locality: “Little Namaqualand”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Fitzsimons, 1943


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bauwens, Castilla & Mouton 1999: behav, biology  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Brody, Mouton & Grant 1993: sys, electrophoretic analysis •  Daniels, Mouton & Du Toit 2004: evolutionary relationships, as out-group •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  McLachlan 1979: distr •  McLachlan & Spence 1966: morph, distr, colour, reproduction • Mouton 2011: aggregation behaviour •  Mouton, Flemming & Nieuwoudt 2000: sexual dimorphism and sex ratio •  Mouton, Flemming & Searby 1998: generation glands •  Nieuwoudt, Mouton & Flemming 2003a: male aggression, staged encounters, ethogram •  Nieuwoudt, Mouton & Flemming 2003b: sex ratio, group composition, male spacing  • Nieuwoudt, Mouton & Flemming 2003c: aggregation behaviour and movement patterns • Power 1933: morph, size •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Switak 1995[a]: behav, ter  • Visagie, Mouton & Bauwens 2005: grouping behaviour, refuge availability •  Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1979[a]: distr •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr • 


NEW: Cordylus marunguensis Greenbaum, Stanley, Kusamba, Moninga, Goldberg & Bursey, 2012
Greenbaum, Eli, Edward L. Stanley, Chifundera Kusamba, Wandege M. Moninga, Stephen R. Goldberg & Charles R. Bursey (2012): A new species of Cordylus (Squamata: Cordylidae) from the Marunga Plateau of south-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. – African Journal of Herpetology, 61 (1): 14-39. [type locality: “Pepa, Marungu Mountains, Katanga Province, DRC, ca. 2000m", type in UTEP #20374 (University of Texas at El Paso, USA)]

Schneider & Barts 2012: comments •


Cordylus mclachlani Mouton, 1986
Mouton, P. (1986 [a]): Description of a new species of Cordylus Laurenti (Reptilia: Cordylidae) from the south-western Cape, South Africa. — South African Journal of Zoology (Pretoria), 21 (4): 319–324. [type locality: “The farm, Zonder Water, in the Koue Bokkeveld, Cape Province”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Mouton 1988: summary of data, conservation status “restricted”, map  • Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces  • Mouton, Visser & van Wyk 1992: morphological variation •  Mouton & van Wyk 1989[a]: sys • 


Cordylus meculae Branch, Rödel & Marais, 2005
Branch, W. R., M.-O. Rödel & J. Marais (2005 [b]): A new species of rupicolous Cordylus Laurenti 1768 (Sauria: Cordylidae) from Northern Mozambique.  — African Journal of Herpetology, 2005, 54 (2): 131-138. [type locality: “Serra Mecula, Niassa Game Reserve, Niassa Province, northern Mozambique, 12° 03’ 11’’ S, 37° 38’ 49’’ E”; type in Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa]

Kwet 2007: review of the desciption •


Cordylus minor Fitzsimons, 1943
1943 Cordylus cordylus minor Fitzsimons
1989 Cordylus minor – Mouton & van Wyk

Fitzsimons, V. (1943): The Lizards of South Africa. — Memoirs of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), No. 1, xv + 528 pp. [as Cordylus cordylus minor; type locality: “just north of Matjesfontein”; type in TM]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mouton & van Wyk 1989[a]: sys  • Mouton & van Wyk 1990: sys •  Mouton & van Wyk 1994: sys •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus mossambicus Fitzsimons, 1958 (Smaug mossambicus (Fitzsimons, 1958 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1958 Cordylus warreni mossambicus Fitzsimons
1998 Cordylus mossambicus – Branch
2002 Cordylus mossambicus – Anonymus/CITES

Fitzsimons, V. (1958 [a]): A New Cordylus from Gorongoza, Mocambique. — Annals of the Natal Museum (Pietermaritzburg), 14 (2): 351–353. [as Cordylus warreni mossambicus; type locality: “Gorongoza Mountain, near Vila Paiva, Mocambique”; type in Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg]

Anonymus/CITES (2002):
distr  Berghof 2011: reproduction, sexual maturity, gestation periods, cannibalism, husbandry, feeding •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Fritz 2007: breeding, terrarium • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus namaquensis (Methuen & Hewitt, 1914) (Namazonurus namaquensis (Methuen & Hewitt, 1914 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1914 Zonurus namaquensis Methuen & Hewitt
1943 Cordylus namaquensis – Fitzsimons

Methuen, P. & Hewitt, J. (1914): Records and Derscriptions of the Reptiles and Batrachians of the Collection. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 4 (3): 118–145. [as Zonurus namaquensis; type locality: “Narudas Süd, in the crevices of rocks in the river bed, Great Karas Mountains”; type in TM]

Fitzsimons, 1943


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior •  Fitzsimons, 1938: morph, colour  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces • Irish 1985: cotype in State Museum, Windhoek  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1955[b]: distr •  Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr • 


Cordylus niger Cuvier, 1829
1905 Calyptoprymnus verecundus de Vis
1926 Zonurus cordylus niger – Rose
1930 Zonurus cordylus atrus Power
1944 Cordylus cordylus niger – Loveridge
1993 Cordylus niger – Brody, Mouton & Grant

Cuvier, G. (1829): Le Règne Animal distribué d’après son Organisation, pour servir de base à l’Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d’introduction à l’Anatomie Comparée. [2] Les Reptiles. — Paris: Déterville (2ième Édition), i–xvi + 1–406 pp. [type locality: “Africa”; syntype in MHNP]

Cordylus niger  Cordylus niger  Seba, 1734-1765  de Vis, 1905
Click to enlarge


[above: Seba (1734-1765), Tome II, Plate 62, Fig. 5] Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Böhme, Hutterer & Bings 1985: vocalization  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Brody, Mouton & Grant 1993: sys, electrophoretic analysis •  Brygoo 1985[a]: sys, syntype in MHNP  • Busack 1959: methods of eating  • Bustard 1955: birth in ter  • Clusella-Trullas & Botes 2008: faecal analysis, diets • Cooper & Whiting 2007: antipredatory behavior, escape •  Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior  • Cooper, Whiting & van Wyk 1997: foraging modes  • Cordes, Mouton & van Wyk 1995: sexual dimorphism •  Cordes & Mouton 1996: conservation  • Cordes & Mouton 1995: melanism  • Daniels, Mouton & Du Toit 2004: evolutionary relationships, melanism  • Dzialowski & O’Connor 2001: physiological control of warming and cooling •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Heerden, Mouton & van Wyk 1992: contact zone with Cordylus cordylus •  Himstedt 1969: vocalization  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Moody 1977: sys (redescription of Calyptoprymnus verecundus)  • Mouton 1985[b]: sys •  Power 1930: description of Zonurus cordylus atrus (type locality: “Cape Peninsula”) •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Skehan 1960: feeding  • Switak 1995[a]: behav, ter  • Toit, Mouton, Flemming & Niekerk 2005: generation glands in females in correlations with climate  • de Vis 1905: description of Calyptoprymnus verecundus (see also Moody 1977)  • Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus nyikae Broadley & Mouton, 2000
Broadley, D. G. & P. le Fras N. Mouton (2000): A new species of rupicolous Cordylus Laurenti from Malawi (Sauria: Cordylidae). — Afr. J. Herpetology, 49 (2): 169-172. [type locality: “near Chelinda Bridge, Nyika National Park, Malawi (10°35´S x 33°48´E), altitude ca. 2400 m a.s.l.”; holo-, allo-, paratypes in NMZB-UM [National History Museum of Zimbabwe], paratypes also in NHM]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Broadley & Branch 2002: review, sys, morph, distr, map •


Cordylus oelofseni Mouton & van Wyk, 1990
Mouton, P. & van Wyk, J. (1990): Taxonomic status of the melanistic forms of the Cordylus cordylus complex (Reptilia: Cordylidae) in the south-western Cape, South Africa. — South African Journal of Zoology (Pretoria), 25 (1): 31–38. [type locality: “Dasklip Pass near Porterville, Cape Province”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Baard & de Villiers 2000: conservation • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Brody, Mouton & Grant 1993: sys, electrophoretic analysis • Clusella-Trullas & Botes 2008: faecal analysis, diets •  Daniels, Mouton & Du Toit 2004: evolutionary relationships, melanism  • Dzialowski & O’Connor 2001: physiological control of warming and cooling •  Toit, Mouton, Flemming & Niekerk 2005: generation glands in females in correlations with climate  •


Cordylus peersi (Hewitt, 1932) (Namazonurus peersi (Hewitt, 1932 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1930 Zonurus peersi – Fitzsimons (nomen nudum)
1932 Zonurus peersi Hewitt
1943 Cordylus peersi – Fitzsimons

Hewitt, J. (1932): Some New Species and Subspecies of South African Batrachians and Lizards. — Annals of the Natal Museum (Pietermaritzburg), 7 (1): 105–128. [as Zonurus peersi; type locality: “Garies in Namaqualand”; type in South African Museum, Cape Town]

Fitzsimons, 1943


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Brody, Mouton & Grant 1993: sys, electrophoretic analysis •  Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior  • Fitzsimons 1938: morph, colour, size •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hewitt 1937[a]: morph •  Hughes 1988: age: >2 years •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  McLachlan 1978: conservation status •  Mouton 1986[b]: dist  • Mouton 2011: aggregation behaviour • Scott, Keogh & Whiting 2004: molecular phylogeny, as out-groups  • Ulber 1993: behav •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus polyzonus Smith, 1838 (Karusasaurus polyzonus (Smith, 1838 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1839 Zonurus polyzonus – Duméril & Bibron

Smith, A. (1838): Contributions to the South African Zoology. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), (2) 2: 31–34. [type locality: “Cape of Good Hope”; type in NHM]

Cordylus polyzonus  Cordylus polyzonus  Fitzsimons, 1943 
 Pletzen, 1946  Smith, 1838-1849
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Barts & Branch 2012: description, biology, foto Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bauer   Bauer & Lamb 2001: melanism • Boettger 1887: morph •  Boulenger 1885: morph •  Bowler 1977: age: >9 years •  Branch 1994: distr •  Branch & Bauer 1995: behav •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Brygoo 1985[a]: sys, syntype in MHNP  • Bustard 1957[a]: birth in ter  • Cooper, Whiting & van Wyk 1997: foraging modes  • Cordes & Mouton 1996: conservation  • Cordes & Mouton 1995: melanism  •  Elzen 1980[b]: morph, behav  • Fitzsimons 1935[a]: morph, colour •  Fitzsimons 1937: type in NHM  • Fitzsimons 1938: distr, colour •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Flemming 1993[a]: behav •  Flemming 1994: behav •  Flemming & van Wyk 1992: reproductive cycle  • Gray 1845: morph •  Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr  • Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hewitt 1937[b]: morph, distr, behav •  Hughes 1988: age:  >9 years  • Laforgia & Varano 1982: chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands  • Loehr & Zwartepoorte 1995: morph, distr, habitat, behav, ter •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1955[b]: distr, morph, sys •  Methuen & Hewitt 1914: size, distr •  Miehle & Bauer 1993: visceral vasculature  • Mouton 1985[b]: sys •  Mouton 1986[b]: dist  • Mouton, Fourie & Flemming 2000: oxygen consumption  • Mouton, Nieuwoudt, Badenhorst & Flemming 2002: sys, distr, map • Nielsen et al. 2012: phylogeography • Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype •  Pletzen 1946: cranial morphology •  Power 1930: distr •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Rose 1962: morph, behav  • Roux 1907: morph •  Scott, Keogh & Whiting 2004: molecular phylogeny, as out-groups  • Smith 1838-1849 [= 1843]: morph. = plate 28 (1843) fig. 1 •  Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >9 years •  Switak 1981[b]: behav •  Ulber 1993: behav  • Visagie, Mouton & Bauwens 2005: grouping behaviour, refuge availability •  Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr  • Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph, habitat, breeding, diet  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Werner 1910: morph, distr  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • van Wyk 1989: female reproductive cycle •  van Wyk 1990: variation in the femoral glands •  van Wyk & Mouton 1992: epidermal glandular structure  •


Cordylus pustulatus (Peters, 1862) (Namazonurus pustulatus (Peters, 1862 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1862 Zonurus pustulatus Peters
1943 Cordylus cordylus pustulatus – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus pustulatus – Loveridge

Peters, W. (1862 [a]): Übersicht einiger von dem, durch seine africanischen Sprachforschungen rühmlichst bekannten, Hrn. Missionär C. H. Hahn bei Neu-Barmen, im Hererolande, an der Westküste von Africa, im 21° südl. Br. gesammelten Amphibien, nebst Beschreibungen der neuen Arten. — Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preuß. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Berlin), 1862: 15–26. [as Zonurus pustulatus; type locality: “Neu-Barmen”; type data: syntypes in ZMB]

Cordylus pustulatus  Sternfeld, 1911
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Bauer, Lang & Günther 1994: sys, about types  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Boulenger 1885: morph •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, distr, behav  • Griffin 2003: conservation status, distr  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data)  • Mertens 1955[b]: morph, size, sys  • Sternfeld 1911[a]: morph  • Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus regius Broadley, 1962 (Smaug regius (Broadley, 1962 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1962 Cordylus warreni regius Broadley
1998 Cordylus regius – Branch
2002 Cordylus regius – Anonymus/CITES

Broadley, D. (1962 [a]): On some Reptile Collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958–61, with Descriptions of Four New Lizards. — Occasional Papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia, 3, 26 (B): 787–843. [see below] [as Cordylus warreni regius; type locality: “8 miles S.S.W. of Umtali, southern Rhodesia at 3700 ft.”; type in Umtali Museum, Zimbabwe]

Broadley, 1962


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1963[a]: morph, habitat, distr •  Hughes 1988: age: >7 years •  Lang 1990[b]: paratype in Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels  • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus rhodesianus (Hewitt, 1933)
1933 Zonurus cordylus rhodesianus Hewitt
1943 Cordylus cordylus rhodesianus – Fitzsimons
1971 Cordylus rhodesianus – Broadley

Hewitt, J. (1933): Descriptions of some New Reptiles and a Frog from Rhodesia. — Occasional Papers of the Rhodesian Museum, 2: 45–50. [as Zonurus cordylus rhodesianus; type locality: “Monte Cassino, Macheke, Southern Rhodesia”; types in Albany Museum, Grahamstown and Rhodesian Museum, Bulawayo. About types see Broadley & Branch 2002: p. 18.]

Fitzsimons, 1943 sc_157


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1962[a]: distr, morph, size, habitat •  Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Broadley & Branch 2002: review, sys, morph, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1939[b]: morph, colour, size •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Laforgia & Varano 1982: chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus rivae (Boulenger, 1896)
1896 Zonurus rivae Boulenger
1944 Cordylus cordylus rivae – Loveridge
1971 Cordylus rivae – Visser
2002 Cordylus rivae – Broadley & Branch

Boulenger, G. (1896[b]): A list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the late Prince Eugenio Ruspoli in Somaliland and Gallaland in 1893. — Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Genua), (2) 17, 1896: 5–14. [p. 8 + 9 see below]  — [as Zonurus rivae; type locality: “Giacorsa, Gallaland”; type in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy]

Boulenger, 1869  Boulenger, 1896
Click to enlarge


Anonymus/CITES (2002):
distr  •  Broadley & Branch 2002: review, sys, morph, figure, distr, map • Capocaccia 1961: type in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy  • Largen & Spawls 2010: description, photo, distribution, map, ecology •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) • Nielsen & Colston 2014: phylogenetic position, biogeography, conservation status, photo, map •   Visser 1971: sys •  not in Wermuth 1968 [in error]  •


Cordylus tasmani (Power, 1930) (= Cordylus cordylus (Linnaeus, 1758 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1930 Zonurus cordylus tasmani Power
1943 Cordylus cordylus tasmani – Fitzsimons
1971 Cordylus tasmani – Broadley

Power, J. (1930): On the South African Species of the Genus Zonurus. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 14 (1): 11–19. [as Zonurus cordylus tasmani; type locality: “Dunbrody, Uitenhage Division”; type in Albany Museum, Grahamstown]

Fitzsions, 1943


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Branch & Braack 1987: behav •  Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus tropidosternum (Cope, 1869)
1869 Zonurus tropidosternum Cope
1889 Zonurus frenatus Pfeffer
1934 Zonurus parkeri Cott
1943 Cordylus tropidosternum – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus cordylus tropidosternum – Loveridge
1988 Cordylus tropidosternum tropidosternum – Branch
2002 Cordylus tropidosternum – Broadley & Branch

Cope, E. (1869): Seventh contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical America. — Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 11 (July 16, 1869): 147–169. [as Zonurus tropidosternum; type locality: “Madagascar” (presumed error for Mozambique; fide Loveridge 1944); type data: formerly Museum of the Essex Institute, now MCZ (No. 5742)]

Cordylus tropidosternum  Cott, 1934  Fitzsimons, 1943
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Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  •  Boulenger 1885: morph •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Branch 2005: morph, distr, photo  • Broadley, 1962[a]: distr, morph, size, habitat •  Broadley 1971[c]: distr, habitat  • Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Broadley & Branch 2002: review, sys, morph, distr, map •  Broadley & Cotterill 2004: distr •  Clauss & Clauss 2002: distr, biology  •  Collin 2008: ter • Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior  • Cott 1934: description of Zonurus parkeri (type locality: “Amatongas”, type in NHM) •  Dijk, Manley & Gallo 1998: spontaneous otoacoustic emissions •  Fitzsimons 1939[b]: morph, colour, size •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Fritz 2007: breeding, terrarium • Grathwohl 2000: ter, breeding •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hofstra 1999: ter, breeding  • Klerks, Struijk & Loehr 2002: morph, ter, breeding, distr  • Loveridge 1920: morph, behav  • Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1937[a]: morph  • Nieden 1913: morph •  Nuijten 1989[b]: ter •  Odierna et al. (2002): Karyotypes  • Pfeffer 1889: description of Zonurus frenatus (type locality: “Mhonda, Kenia”)  • Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2001: morph, distr, map, habitat, biology •  Struijk 2002: reproduction in captivity •  Telford 1995: new trypanosome species •  Visser 1971: sys •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • Witte & Laurent 1942: morph, distr  • Ziegler 2005: breeding in Cologne Zoo • 


Cordylus ukingensis (Loveridge, 1932)
1932 Zonurus ukingensis Loveridge
1944 Cordylus ukingensis – Loveridge

Loveridge, A. (1932): New Reptiles and Amphibians from Tanganyika Territory and Kenya Colony. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Mass.), 72 (10): 375–387. [as Zonurus ukingensis; type locality: “Tandala, Ukinga Mountains, southwestern Tanganyika Territory”; type in MCZ (No. 30761)]

Anonymus/CITES (2002):
distr  •  Branch 2005: morph, distr, photo  • Broadley & Branch 2002: review, morph, distr, map  • Loveridge 1933: morph •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2001: morph, distr, map, habitat, biology •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus vandami (Fitzsimons, 1930) (Smaug vandami (Fitzsimons, 1930 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1930 Zonurus vandami Fitzsimons
1930 Zonurus vandami perkoensis Fitzsimons
1943 Cordylus vandami vandami – Fitzsimons
1943 Cordylus vandami perkoensis – Fitzsimons
1944 Cordylus warreni vandami – Loveridge
1944 Cordylus warreni perkoensis – Loveridge
1998 Cordylus vandami – Branch
2002 Cordylus vandami – Anonymus/CITES

Fitzsimons, V. (1930): Descriptions of new South African Reptilia and Batrachia, with Distribution Records of Allied Species in the Transvaal Museum Collection. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 14 (1): 20–48. [as Zonurus vandami; type locality: “Gravelotte, near Leydsdorp, Eastern Transvaal”; type in TM]

Fitzsimons, 1943


Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Pienaar 1978: colour, size, distr, behav  • Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983: colour, distr, behav  • Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >7 years • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex •  Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus vittifer (Reichenow, 1887)
1887 Zonurus vittifer Reichenow
1907 Zonurus cordylus var. vittifer – Roux
1910 Zonurus tropidogaster Boulenger
1971 Cordylus vittifer vittifer – Broadley
1998 Cordylus vittifer – Branch

Reichenow, A. (1887): Neue Wirbelthiere des Zoologischen Museums in Berlin. — Zoologischer Anzeiger (Leipzig), 10: 369–372. [as Zonurus vittifer; type locality: “Transvaal”; holotype in ZMB]

Cordylus vittifer (c) Matz  Fitzsimons, 1943 Picture-Taker-EF96FX
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Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Auerbach 1985: morph, behav  • Auerbach 1987: morph, behav, distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bauer, Lang & Günther 1994: sys, about type •  Boulenger 1910: description of Zonurus tropidogaster (type locality: “Barberton, Transvaal”, type in NHM)  • Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1971[d]: sys •  Broom 1935: skull •  Cooper, van Wyk, Mouton, Al-Johany et al. 2000: antipredatory behavior  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hewitt 1909: morph •  Hughes 1988: age: >7 years •  Jacobsen 1972: habitat, ter, diet, reproduction •  Jacobson 1954: forebrain •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Mertens 1970: age: >6 years  • Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype • Pienaar 1962: cytology of blood •  Roux 1907: morph •  Skinner 1991: behavioural thermoregulation •  Smet 1981: description of karyotypes •  Sternfeld 1911[a]: morph •  Switak 1995[b]: behav, ter  • Trutnau 1986: morph, behav  • Visser 1971: sys •  Visser 1984[c]: morph, behav, distr •  Waal 1978: sys, distr, for the OFS with map, morph, habitat, breeding, diet  • Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  • Wever 1970: fine structure of the ear • Wever 1978: structure and function of ear • 


Cordylus warreni warreni (Boulenger, 1908) (Smaug warreni warreni (Boulenger, 1908 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1908 Zonurus warreni Boulenger
1943 Cordylus warreni warreni – Fitzsimons
2002 Cordylus warreni – Anonymus/CITES

Boulenger, G. (1908[a]): On a Collection of Fresh-water Fishes, Batrachians, and Reptiles from Natal and Zululand, with Description of New Species. — Annals of the Natal Government Museum (Pietermaritzburg), 1 (3): 219–235. [see below] [as Zonurus warreni; type locality: “Ubombo, Zululand”; type in NHM]

Boulenger, 1908  Fitzsimons, 1943sc_165
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Link: Live Birth of an C. warreni   • Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Bissinger & Simon 1979: tongue extrusions •  Bowler 1977: age: >4 years •  Branch 1998: morph, breeding, biology, habitat, distr, map •  Broadley 1962[c]: habitat •  Broadley 1971[b]: morph, distr  • Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr  • Haikal 1975: ter •  Harvey & Gutberlet 1995: microstructure, evolution and ontogeny of scale surfaces •  Hart 1972 & 1976: ter •  Krabbe-Paulduro & Paulduro 1989: morph, behav, ter, breeding •  Kumazawa 2004: mitochondrial DNA sequences •  Laforgia & Varano 1982: chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) •  Nietzke 1998: ter, morph, behav, distr, diet, reproduction  • Olmo, Capriglione, Odierna et al. 1995: genome characteristics  • Olmo & Odierna 1980: chromosomes, DNA, karyotype •  Rogner 1994: morph, behav, ter •  Snider & Bowler 1992: age: >11 years  • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex • Switak 1995[b]: behav, ter  • Trutnau 1986: morph, behav •  Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


Cordylus warreni barbertonensis (van Dam, 1921) (Smaug warreni barbertonensis (van Dam, 1921 [Stanley et al. 2011])
1921 Zonurus barbertonensis van Dam
1943 Cordylus warreni barbertonensis – Fitzsimons
2002 Cordylus barbertonensis – Anonymus/CITES

Dam, G. (1921): Descriptions of new species of Zonurus, and notes on the species of Zonurus occurring in the Transvaal. — Annals of the Transvaal Museum (Pretoria), 7 (4): 239–243. [see below] [as Zonurus barbertonensis; type locality: “Barberton, Transvaal”; type in TM]

van Dam, 1921
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Anonymus/CITES (2002): distr  • Bates, Branch, Bauer et al. (Atlas and Red List) 2014: tax, habitat, map, photo, conservation • Branch 1998: morph, distr, behav •  Fitzsimons 1943: sys, morph, colour, size, distr, behav •  Hughes 1988: age: >5 years •  Loveridge 1944: revision (= all data) • Stanley & Bates 2014: biogeography, palaeoecology, taxonomic revision of the warreni-complex •  Visser 1984[d]: morph, behav, distr •  Wermuth 1968: sys, distr  •


© Klaus Adolphs  – created: 26 February 2001  – last changed or updated: 29 July 2015